Istilah-istilah Kimia (Bahasa Inggris) dari A-Z


A
An atom, with protons, neutrons,
and electrons labelled.
absolute zero – a theoretical
condition concerning a system at
zero Kelvin where a system does
not emit or absorb energy (all
atoms are at rest)
accuracy – how close a value is to
the actual or true value; also see
precision
acid – a compound that, when
dissolved in water, gives a pH of less
than 7.0 or a compound that
donates a hydrogen ion
acid anhydride – a compound with
two acyl groups bound to a single
oxygen atom
acid dissociation constant – an
equilibrium constant for the
dissociation of a weak acid
actinides – the fifteen chemical
elements that are between actinium
(89) and lawrencium (103 )
activated complex – a structure
that forms because of a collision
between molecules while new
bonds are formed
activation energy
activity series
actual yield
addition reaction – within organic
chemistry, when two or more
molecules combine to make a
larger one
aeration – the mixing of air into a
liquid or solid
alkali metals – the metals of Group
1 on the periodic table
alkaline earth metals – the metals
of Group 2 on the periodic table
allomer – a substance that has
different composition than another,
but has the same crystalline
structure
allotropy – elements that can have
different structures (and therefore
different forms), such as Carbon
(diamonds , graphite , and fullerene )
anion – negatively charge ions
anode
aromaticity – chemical property of
conjugated rings that results in
unusual stability. See also benzene .
atom – a chemical element in its
smallest form, and is made up of
neutrons and protons within the
nucleus and electrons circling the
nucleus
atomic mass unit
atomic number – the number
representing an element which
corresponds with the number of
protons within the nucleus
atomic orbital – the region where
the electron of the atom may be
found
average atomic mass
Avogadro’s law
Avogadro’s number
B
barometer –
base – a substance that accepts a
proton and has a high pH ; a
common example is sodium
hydroxide (NaOH)
biochemistry – the chemistry of
organisms
boiling – the phase transition of
liquid vaporizing
boiling point –
boiling-point elevation –
bond – the attraction and repulsion
between atoms and molecules that
is a cornerstone of chemistry
Boyle’s law –
Brønsted-Lowrey acid –
Brønsted–Lowry acid–base
reaction –
Brønsted-Lowrey base –
buffered solution –
burette (also buret) – glassware
used to dispense specific amounts
of liquid when precision is
necessary (e. g. titration and
resource dependent reactions)
C
An example of combustion
catalyst – a chemical compound
used to change the rate (either to
speed up or slow down) of a
reaction, but is regenerated at the
end of the reaction.
cation – positively charged ion
centrifuge – equipment used to
separate substances based on
density by rotating the tubes
around a centred axis
cell potential – the force in a
galvanic cell that pulls electron
through reducing agent to oxidizing
agent
chemical Law – certain rules that
pertain to the laws of nature and
chemistry – examples
chemical reaction – the change of
one or more substances into
another or multiple substances
colloid – mixture of evenly
dispersed substances, such as
many milks
combustion – an exothermic
reaction between an oxidant and
fuel with heat and often light
compound – a substance that is
made up of two or more chemically
bonded elements
condensation – the phase change
from gas to liquid
conductor – material that allows
electric flow more freely
covalent bond – chemical bond
that involves sharing electrons
crystal – a solid that is packed with
ions, molecules or atoms in an
orderly fashion
cuvette – glassware used in
spectroscopic experiments. It is
usually made of plastic, glass or
quartz and should be as clean and
clear as possible
D
deionization – the removal of ions,
and in water’s case mineral ions
such as sodium, iron and calcium
deliquescence – substances that
absorb water from the atmosphere
to form liquid solutions
deposition – settling of particles
within a solution or mixture
dipole – electric or magnetic
separation of charge
dipole moment – the polarity of a
polar covalent bond
dissolution or solvation – the
spread of ions in a solvent
double bond – sharing of two pairs
of electrons
E
Microcentrifuge or Eppendorf tube
with Coomassie Blue solution
earth metal – see alkaline earth
metal
electrolyte – a solution that
conducts a certain amount of
current and can be split
categorically as weak and strong
electrlytes
electrochemical cell – using a
chemical reaction’s current,
electromotive force is made
electromagnetic radiation – a type
of wave that can go through
vacuums as well as material and
classified as a self- propagating
wave
electromagnetism – fields that
have electric charge and electric
properties that change the way that
particles move and interact
electromotive force – a device that
gains energy as electric charges
pass through it
electron – a subatomic particle with
a net charge that is negative
electron shells – an orbital around
the atom’s nucleus that has a fixed
number electrons (usually two or
eight)
electric charge – a measured
property (coulombs ) that determine
electromagnetic interaction
element – an atom that is defined
by its atomic number
energy – A system’s ability to do
work
enthalpy – measure of the total
energy of a thermodynamic system
(usually symbolized as H )
entropy – the amount of energy
not available for work in a closed
thermodynamic system (usually
symbolized as S)
enzyme – a protein that speeds up
(catalyses) a reaction
eppendorf tube – generalized and
trademarked term used for a type
of tube; see microcentrifuge
F
freezing – phase transition from
liquid to solid
Faraday constant – a unit of
electrical charge widely used in
electrochemistry and equal to
~ 96,500 coulombs.
It represents 1 mol of electrons, or
the Avogadro number of electrons:
6.022 × 10 23 electrons. F =
96 485. 339 9(24) C /mol
Faraday’s law of electrolysis – a
two part law that Michael Faraday
published about electrolysis
the mass of a substance altered
at an electrode during
electrolysis is directly
proportional to the quantity of
electricity transferred at that
electrode
the mass of an elemental
material altered at an electrode
is directly proportional to the
element’s equivalent weight.
frequency – number of cycles per
unit of time. Unit: 1 hertz = 1 cycle
per 1 second
G
galvanic cell – battery made up of
electrochemical with two different
metals connected by salt bridge
gas – particles that fill their container
though have no definite shape or
volume
geochemistry – the chemistry of
and chemical composition of the
Earth
Gibbs energy – value that indicates
the spontaneity of a reaction
(usually symbolized as G )
H
halogens – Group 17 on the
Periodic Table and are all non-
metals
J
jodium – Latin name of the halogen
element iodine
I
indicator – a special compound
added to solution that changes
color depending on the acidity of
the solution; different indicators
have different colors and effective
pH ranges
inorganic compound – compounds
that do not contain carbon, though
there are exceptions (see main
article)
inorganic chemistry – a part of
chemistry concerned with inorganic
compounds
International Union of Pure and
Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) –
insulator – material that resists the
flow of electric current
ion – a molecule that has gained or
lost one or more electrons
ionic bond – electrostatic attraction
between oppositely charged ions
ionization -The breaking up of a
compound into separate ions.
K
Kinetics – A sub-field of chemistry
specializing in reaction rates
Kinetic energy – The energy of an
object due to its motion.
L
lanthanides – Elements 57 through
71
lattice – Unique arrangement of
atoms or molecules in a crystalline
liquid or solid.
Laws of thermodynamics
liquid – A state of matter which
takes the shape of its container
light – Portion of the
electromagnetic spectrum which is
visible to the naked eye. Also called
“visible light.”
London dispersion forces – A weak
intermolecular force
M
This is a molecule, which is one of
the key components within chemistry
Metal – Chemical element that is a
good conductor of both electricity
and heat and forms cations and
ionic bonds with non-metals.
melting – The phase change from a
solid to a liquid
metalloid – A substance possessing
both the properties of metals and
non-metals
methylene blue – a heterocyclic
aromatic chemical compound with
the molecular formula
C 16H 18N 3 SCl
microcentrifuge – a small plastic
container that is used to store small
amounts of liquid
mole – abbreviated mol – a
measurement of an amount of
substance; a single mole contains
approximately 6.022 ×10 23 units or
entities
a mole of water contains
6.022 ×10 23 H 2 O molecules
molecule – a chemically bonded
number of atoms that are
electrically neutral
molecular orbital – region where
an electron can be found in a
molecule (as opposed to an atom)
N
neutron – a neutral unit or
subatomic particle that has no net
charge

About dhahnd371

I'm an Introvert boy. I like Science and Science fiction, I also like photography, blogging, gadget and many others.

Posted on 8 Januari 2012, in Chemical, Chemistry, Kimia and tagged , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. 10 Komentar.

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